Industrialization and an ever-growing population with rising standards of living produce huge volumes of wastewater, while at the same time the demand for drinking water is increasing. Hence, water recycling and continuous monitoring of industrial/communal wastewater is becoming more and more important globally. This application note describes a method for fast routine analysis of several toxic key elements, such as cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, zinc, and chromium, in industrial effluents.
Toxic metals, such as cadmium, lead or chromium as well as high concentrations of other potentially harmful elements, e.g., nickel or copper, often pass into eco systems through sewage sludge from industrial sites, as well as from weathering or wearing of pipes, reactors and other industrial facilities. Hence, a close monitoring of sewage sludge is the key to meeting statutory limits, and to allow targeted intervention in case of potential hazards
The following application note describes methods for determining macro minerals, trace minerals, and toxic trace metals in powdered milk, a dairy product used, for example, in manufacturing infant formula, chocolate and other sweets, baked goods, or cheese and yoghurt. It provides the advantages of longer shelf life, no need for refrigeration, and reduced bulk for easier transportation while almost maintaining the content of minerals. Furthermore, lactose powder and whey protein powder were analyzed. The analysis was performed on a dual atomizer system for AAS, thus allowing simple routine analysis for monitoring the nutritional value using flame AAS as well as special element determination down to lowest detection levels to guarantee food safety by means of graphite furnace technique
The demand for copper especially by the electronic industry has constantly increased over the last decades, and it is expected that 20 million tons of copper ore will be dig up annually by 2020. It is applications of copper in wiring and cables, in circuit boards and electronic assemblies that are driving this development; and so the grade of copper impacts on the price to be achieved by mining companies and smelters. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is a simple, robust and cost-effective method used by many mining companies and smelters to quantify copper – in ores and pre-concentrated metallic form – over a wide concentrations range from medium ppm (mg/kg) to high percentage (wt%) values. In contrast, impurity control of high-purity copper e.g., for antimony, bismuth, phosphorous, and tin is typically done by ICP-techniques that are true multi-element techniques with significantly higher sensitivity; hence, covering the ppb (μg/kg) to ppm (mg/kg) range.
Wine consists of a fairly complex matrix including water, sugar, alcohol as well as a great variety of organic and inorganic components. Ethanol especially influences the transport and nebulization properties of the sample due to changes in density and surface tension compared to aqueous standard solutions. The composition of wine is affected by many factors related to a large extent to its specific production area e.g. grape type, soil and climate, culture, wine production process, transport and storage. Wine contains macro-elements with concentrations above 10 mg/l (Na, K, Mg, Ca), micro-elements in the range between 10 mg/L and 10 μg/L (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb) and ultramicro-elements with concentrations below 10 μg/L (Cr, As, Cd, Ni). Even though some of these metals such as copper and zinc are essential biometals and lack thereof can lead to serious illness, the majority of them have carcinogenic or toxic effects even at trace levels. Besides consumer health issues, some of these elements may cause precipitation of tartrates and other organic complexes and thus need to be monitored to ensure stability and storability of the wine. For these reasons, it is of great importance to constantly monitor the levels of certain elements
Fluorine is a common element in the earth’s crust formed in minerals and rocks as fluorides. The abundance of fluorine in the crust averages about 650 ppm (parts per million) and is commonly found in basalts, gabbros, andesites, granodiorites, rhyolites and granites. Marine phosphorites contain significantly higher concentrations of fluorine, averaging more than 30,000 ppm. Fluorite (CaF2), also known as fluorspar in industry, also has important uses in metallurgy including steel production, in the manufacture of ceramics and for the production of hydrofluoric acid as a precursor for other manufactured products. Optical grade fluorite with exceptional clarity is used for lenses in optical system, while specimens with exceptional color are cut into gemstones and ornaments.
The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their potential health risks. In order to ensure the safety of these products and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements it is of great importance to perform diligent analysis for (toxic) metals present in dietary supplements. While some metals are essential for living organisms because of their responsibility of maintaining the vital body functions, they have fatal effects when they are taken in excess. Research studies have even linked brain disorder symptoms to over dosage. On the other hand, heavy metals such as Pb and Cd are toxic at much lower levels and are known to induce serious diseases. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is a robust, reliable and sensitive analytical technique which is well suited for the determination of heavy metals.