The multi-channel X-ray fluorescence spectrometer “Simultix14” enables simultaneous measurements of all elements in samples and contributes to various kind of process control in production lines where extremely rapid analysis is required. Fe, Ni, Co alloys including high temperature alloy, tool steel, stainless steels, etc. have broad ranges of the concentrations for many elements and many of those alloys are analyzed in production control. The calibration curves have to be separated into many groups in empirical calibration method even if matrix correction is introduced, because of strong inter-element effects of absorption and enhancement.
The basic theoretical formula of fluorescent X-ray intensity for Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method was established by Sherman in 1955 and Shiraiwa and Fujino completed the formula by correcting secondary excitation term in 1966. Rigaku had introduced the first FP method software for a WDXRF spectrometer among XRF manufacturers in 1983 and the FP method has been widely used from screening analysis as semi-quantitative analysis to production control in many industries.
In this note, Fe, Ni and Co alloy analysis by FP method is demonstrated.
Alloy steel with chromium of alloying element added is called stainless steel. Its advantage is not to rust or corrode as easily as ordinary steel. There are over 150 grades of stainless steel, which have many applications such as cookware and major appliances. Alloy steels are generally produced using electric furnaces. The concentrations of elements in molten steel are controlled in the process of steel making, therefore rapid and accurate analysis of elemental compositions are required. As part of the control of the steel making process, analyses of slag and raw materials such as quicklime and ferroalloys are also required. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are the most common analysis tools to analyze steel owing to rapid analysis and the ability to measure both bulk metal and powders. This application note describes stainless steel analysis using the ZSX PrimusIII+, which is optimized for process control.
Alloy steels with up to 4 to 8% of alloying elements added are called low alloy steels. Low alloy steels are made by adding various elements intended to improve a specific characteristic of steel such as hardenability. Alloy steels are generally made in electric furnaces. The concentrations of elements in molten steel are adjusted during the process of steel making, so that rapid analysis of the elemental composition is required. As part of the control of the steel making process, analyses of slag and raw materials such as quicklime and ferroalloys are also required. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are the most common analysis tools to analyze steel owing to rapid analysis and the ability to measure both bulk metal and powders. This application note describes low alloy steel analysis using the ZSX PrimusIII+, which is optimized for process control.
Beryllium copper alloy has almost as high strength as steel, and is the strongest among copper alloys. In addition, it has various features such as non-magnetic and non-sparking characteristics, having high electrical conductivity and ductility. Owing to these features, beryllium copper has many uses; springs, electric connectors, tools in environments with explosive vapors and gases, and musical instruments. Since characteristics and uses of beryllium copper alloys depend on beryllium concentration, it is important to analyze beryllium in beryllium copper.
Analysis of metallic Tungsten by high-resolution ICP-OES The rapid analysis of traces impurities in refractory metals and alloys is an important part of the quality-control process in the manufacture of these materials. All classical atomic spectrometry techniques, however, have major disadvantages with respect to trace detectability in these matrices, which for example arise from the high atomization temperatures (AAS), the wealth of emission lines (ICP-OES) and adverse metal oxide formation (ICP-MS) of refractory elements like W, Mo, Ta and Nb. The novel high-resolution array technology of the PlasmaQuant® PQ 9000 eliminates almost all spectral interferences of classical ICP-OES providing increased power of detection for trace impurities at a competitive speed of analysis and with high ease of use.
The coupling of ICP-MS, mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation allows the characterization of solid samples without digestion or other sample preparation procedures. This work evaluates the suitability of this technique for the characterization of trace element concentrations in metal alloys. The analysis was concentrated on elements that require lowest possible detection limits that for now cannot be ensured with complementary techniques. Main focus was put on elements like As, Se, Ag, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi as well as Ca and Mg. Additional elements were included to show the capability of the method for a simultaneous analysis of more elements