New methods for the production of alternative fuels are a growing field of interest. Technologies based on fermentation of starch and sugar, and the transesterification or hydrocracking of plant and animal oil, delivering so-called first generation biofuels, are already well established but linked to limited resources for ethical and ecological reasons. Another promising approach consists of processes based on the conversion of cellulose-rich biomass and waste (second generation biofuels). With the use of biogenic materials for fuel production, the inherently high amount of harmful nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine-containing hydrocarbons that results has to be monitored. Therefore, a strict monitoring of the feed stocks, intermediates, and final products is crucial.