Education Centre

Melting and Crystallisation of Phase Change Materials (PCM) by Microcalorimetry

Phase change materials (PCMs) are substances that can absorb or release large amounts of latent heat. This happens when their physical state changes, generally, either from solid to liquid or vice versa. Microcalorimetry is a technique for measuring the energy absorbed or released during a phase change process thus enabling the amount of energy to be quantified in real-time. This technique also enables the successive melting and crystallisation of PCMs used in various applications to test them for long term usefulness and stability. What is a Phase Change Material? A phase change material (PCM) is a substance that stores and…

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Electroless Nickel Plating

Electroless nickel plating (ENP) is a technique for protecting materials from corrosion, wear and abrasion. It is widely used across a range of industries, including: Engineering Construction Aerospace Electronics A crucial part of the ENP process is the accurate measurement of thickness and composition. The perfect technique for this is x-ray fluorescence (XRF). What is ENP? ENP is an alternative to nickel-coating using electroplating, or coating with hard chrome. It provides a less porous coating, and the process itself uses no electricity and requires fewer coats to achieve a strong, high-quality finish. With ENP, there’s considerable scope for flexibility in…

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An Introduction to Ion Beam Milling (IBM)

 Ion beam milling produces a sample which is thin, smooth, and free of surface debris. The technique is suitable whenever a high-resolution cross-sectional image is desired. Polymerics Ceramics Metals Geological specimens What are the components of an Ion Beam Mill? A basic Ion Beam Mill system consists of a vacuum chamber, an ion beam source, an ion gun and a sample stage (or substrate holder). To properly control the ion bombardment of the sample, it is necessary that the ion beam has an unobstructed path to the surface of the sample to be milled. This is achieved by processing the…

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What is total organic carbon?

What is Total Organic Carbon? All organic molecules have carbon in them: Total organic carbon (TOC) is the measure of the concentration of organic carbon in a substance and is considered to be the best indicator of contamination, or purity, of a substance. It is also possible to measure the level of inorganic carbon (TIC), total carbon (TC) and even purgeable and non-purgeable organic carbon (POC and NPOC). Why is measuring TOC important? As an analytical technique, TOC enables companies across a range of industries to know whether the water they are using is clean enough for their processes and…

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What is AOX analysis?

AOX analysis is used for compliance with DIN ISO 9652, EPA 1650 for AOX in water and wastewater, and EPA 9020B for TOX in wastewater   Halogenated organic compounds (HOC) have increasingly been used within various industries over the years. Some man-made halogenated compounds are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic and they may have harmful effects on human health and the environment. Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) Compounds (X = Cl, Br, I)) is a sum parameter for describing the organic halogen compound load in water, sewage sludge and soils. The parameter covers a large group of substances from simple volatile substances…

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An Introduction to Viscometers

Viscometers are instruments that measure the fluid flow and viscosity of liquids. The viscosity of a liquid can affect its performance, whether this is pumping or piping it, or how it performs for dipping and coating. Measuring viscosity, therefore, applies to a wide range of materials, including: Oil Plastics Paints Coatings Adhesives Wax Asphalt Measuring viscosity and flow properties also applies to the production of familiar consumer items such as food and drink, toothpaste, cosmetics and shampoo. View Viscometers from Scimed What Does a Viscometer Do? Viscometers measure the viscosity and flow properties of liquids, and have a wide variety…

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What is ICP-MS?

Atomic spectroscopy is the technique for determining the elemental composition of an analyte by its electromagnetic or mass spectrum. Several atomic spectroscopy analytical techniques are available and selecting the most appropriate one is the key to achieving accurate, reliable, real-world results. This article focuses on ICP-MS. Overview An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is an analytical tool capable of measuring very low levels of about 72 different elements. Most of these elements have limits of detection below the part-per-trillion range with some even in the parts-per-quadrillion range. Samples are introduced into an argon plasma as an aerosol. The plasma dries…

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What is Flash Point Testing?

Flash point testing is a procedure designed to determine whether a sampled mixture of vapour and air is flammable. It can also determine the temperature at which flammability occurs in a sample. The lowest temperature at which its vapours ignite from an ignition source is the flash point of a material. Flash point analysis is important for testing various products, including lubricants and petroleum-based materials. The oil industry uses flash point testing for oil analysis. View Flash Point Testing Equipment from Scimed Why is Testing for Flammability Important? Process industries routinely use flammable materials. This exposes them to frequent risk…

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What is a Supercritical Fluid?

Supercritical fluids occur when sufficient temperature and…

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What is X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used…

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What is a Hydrogen Generator?

H-Genie Hydrogen Generator FAQ   What is a Hydrogen Generator? A Hydrogen generator is a machine that is used to produce hydrogen from water, using a process called electrolysis. If the supply pressure of hydrogen from the generator is high enough, it can eliminate the need for hydrogen cylinders by providing a safer and more user friendly alternative alternative. How does a hydrogen generator work? A hydrogen generator works by using electricity to split the hydrogen atoms in a water molecule apart form the oxygen atom. This is done by a process called electrolysis, and is performed in a cell…

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What is Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical technique for…

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What is Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry

Oxygen bomb calorimeters determine the calorific value of…

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A Brief Introduction to SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy)

In SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), a focused beam of electrons is scanned…

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What is Powder Shear Testing (Powder Flow)

With the term “good flowability” it usually is expressed that a powder or…

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What is X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)

X-ray fluorescence or XRF is an analytical technique that…

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What is Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy ( NIR)

Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a spectroscopy technique that…

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