Tag: Cr

Analysis of Stainless Steel

Alloy steel with chromium of alloying element added is called stainless steel. Its advantage is not to rust or corrode as easily as ordinary steel. There are over 150 grades of stainless steel, which have many applications such as cookware and major appliances. Alloy steels are generally produced using electric furnaces. The concentrations of elements in molten steel are controlled in the process of steel making, therefore rapid and accurate analysis of elemental compositions are required. As part of the control of the steel making process, analyses of slag and raw materials such as quicklime and ferroalloys are also required. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are the most common analysis tools to analyze steel owing to rapid analysis and the ability to measure both bulk metal and powders. This application note describes stainless steel analysis using the ZSX PrimusIII+, which is optimized for process control.

Low Alloy Steel Analaysis

Alloy steels with up to 4 to 8% of alloying elements added are called low alloy steels. Low alloy steels are made by adding various elements intended to improve a specific characteristic of steel such as hardenability. Alloy steels are generally made in electric furnaces. The concentrations of elements in molten steel are adjusted during the process of steel making, so that rapid analysis of the elemental composition is required. As part of the control of the steel making process, analyses of slag and raw materials such as quicklime and ferroalloys are also required. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are the most common analysis tools to analyze steel owing to rapid analysis and the ability to measure both bulk metal and powders. This application note describes low alloy steel analysis using the ZSX PrimusIII+, which is optimized for process control.

Trace element analysis of aqueous solitions to PPB levels

The influence on the environment of trace heavy elements such as Cd, Pb, As, Cr, Se, etc. in water is considered a serious social problem. In order to control this problem, it is essential to monitor water quality. Considering the large number of test samples required for assessment of water quality, the test method should be simple, rapid, and reproducible. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has many positive features, such as simple sample preparation, short analysis time, and high repeatability with low human error, compared to other elemental analysis methods, such as ICP-OES or AA. XRF is the best method for the above test. Concentrations of some trace heavy elements are too low for XRF analysis in direct liquid analysis, where water solution is poured into a liquid cell with analysis thin film. In this application note, the micro-droplet method was used. An improved filter paper “Ultra Carry®” for the micro-droplet method achieved an LLD lower than 0.1 ppm. This application note demonstrates the analysis results and performance of the micro-droplet method with Ultra Carry.